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HEALPix Facility Installation Guidelines

This document describes the installation for the HEALPix facilities.

Eric Hivon, Anthony J. Banday, Matthias Bartelmann, Benjamin D. Wandelt, Frode K. Hansen and Krzysztof M. Górski

Revision: Version 2.15a; June 18, 2010



In this document the installation procedure for the HEALPix distribution is outlined. HEALPix comprises a suite of Fortran 90, C++, IDL and Java routines providing both stand-alone facilities and callable subroutines as an alternative for those users who wish to build their own tools. A set of C subroutines and functions is also provided.

The distribution can be downloaded as a gzipped and tarred file, which can be unpacked by executing the commands
% gunzip Healpix_2.15a.tar.gz
% tar -xpf Healpix_2.15a.tar

Figure 1: The directory structure for the HEALPix distribution.
Image dir_tree

The unpacked distribution has a directory structure as shown in Figure 1.

As with most freely available software, the distribution comes with caveats, the major one being that although we have attempted to automate the installation as much as possible, not all eventualities can ever be foreseen. We have tested the installation on the following platforms:
AIX, IRIX, IRIX64, Linux, SunOS, ALPHA and Darwin (MacOS)

There may be problems in the facility build due to the local system configuration which is beyond our control.

Installation Requirements

The major part of the HEALPix distribution is written in both Fortran 90 and C++ and so the appropriate compiler(s) must be present (Linux and Darwin users should look at Section 8.3.4 about free F90 compilers. Microsoft Windows users should look at Section 6.1). Many visualisation tools and map manipulation routines are provided in IDL (please note that at least version 6.1 is required) and Java. Some of the HEALPix routines are also available in C.

This section and the next focus on the compilation and installation of the C, C++, Fortran 90 and IDL routines. For more information on the Java routines see table 1

Table 1: Documentation on the installation and usage of the different packages
Healpix Package Information on installation Information on routines
Fortran 90 This document ''Fortran Facilities'' and ''Fortran Subroutines'' documents
IDL This document ''IDL Facilities''
C++ This document, or src/cxx/README.compilation ''C++ Facilities and Subroutines'' (HTML only)
java src/java/README ''Java Overview'' (HTML only)
C This document, or src/C/README ''C Subroutines Overview''

The configure script is written in the Bourne shell. The script attempts to generate a Makefile which is tailored to one of the above Operating Systems (OS's) and using as a template for non system-specific statements. Only the basic UNIX make facility is required to build the software, although we do still recommend the GNU make facility ( In addition, several environment configuration files and an IDL startup file are generated. These automatically establish various environment variables and aliases to make the use of the HEALPix package simpler.

The HEALPix Fortran 90, C++ and C distributions also require the publicly available CFTISIO library:

Software Package Source
CFITSIO V 2.xx or 3.xx library

The IDL visualization software is commercially available at

Software Package Source
IDL V 6.1 or more

while the GNU Data Language GDL, a free clone of IDL 6.0, can also be used (with some caveats, see §6.8) and can be downloaded for free from

Software Package Source
GDL 0.9rc3 or more

As it was already the case in version 1.20, users no longer need to acquire the IDL Astronomy User's Library ( or the COBE (IDL) Analysis Software (, although we do recommend these packages to the user. The 100-odd routines required for version 2.15a are contained in the subdirectory Healpix_2.15a/src/idl/zzz_external. These procedures are included in the HEALPix package unchanged and solely for the purpose of making it self contained. In this way, we remove the burden of installation of additional libraries from the end user.

A parallel implementation (based on OpenMP, for shared memory architectures) of the Spherical Harmonics Transforms involved in synfast, anafast, smoothing, plmgen and alteralm is now available by default and can be readily compiled and used with the standard installation script.

A set of routines with MPI parallelization (for distributed memory architectures) is also available for Spherical Harmonics Transform, thanks to the work of H.K. Eriksen ( and Snorre Boasson (ITEA, NTNU). See the F90 subroutines documentation for more information on how to use those routines in your code.

We found that it was remarkably difficult to find random number generators in the public domain which are simple yet powerful and easy to use. We are providing one (both in C++ and F90) which is an adaptation of an xorshift generator described in Marsaglia (Journal of Statistical Software 2003, vol 8). It has a theoretical period of $2^{128}-1 \approx 3.4\ 10^{38}$.

The Installation Procedure

If the user has one of the supported OS's, then installation proceeds utilizing the following commands. If your OS is not supported, the configuration step should be omitted, should be copied as Makefile and explicitly tailored to the user environment.

% ./configure [-L] uses as a template to build the correct Makefile (from user inputs as required), it will also configure the IDL routines
% make builds all the facilities
% make test tests all the facility previously compiled
% make clean removes object files
% make tidy removes object files, executables and libraries
% make distclean same as above and restores the directories to the state of the original distribution
These different steps are detailled below.

./configure [-L]

The ./configure script manages the configuration of the C, C++, Fortran90 and IDL suites of routines and facilities.

Since v2.11, it accepts the -L option to write the HEALPix specific configuration files into the HEALPix directory itself rather than in installer's home directory (see § 3.1.1). Using the -L option is recommended when doing a project or system wide installation of HEALPix to be accessed by several different users.

An online help is available with ./configure -h.

Configuration profile

A feature introduced in previous releases and enhanced since v2.10, is that the configure script creates a shell configuration file
(located in ${HOME}/.healpix/2_12_$\langle$OS_TYPE$\rangle$/config or in
${HEALPIX}/confdir/2_12_$\langle$OS_TYPE$\rangle$/config if ./configure -L was used) according to shell type in which various environment variables and aliases are defined for your convenience. If you agree upon prompting, it will also change your default system profile during installation to automatically source this profile. If you do not agree to this change, you will need to explicitly source the configuration file above for any session in which you intend to run HEALPix facilities. In particular, you will have to make sure that the HEALPIX system variable is correctly defined (as the full path to the HEALPix directory) before running the package.

C configuration

The ./configure script will ask for the C compiler and options to be used, and for the full path of an installed cfitsio library to link to. By default, only a static library is created, but the user can also ask for a shared (Unix/Linux systems) or dynamic (Darwin) library.
After compilation (see make section) and linking, all libraries will be in ${HEALPIX}/lib/chealpix.* .

C++ configuration

The ./configure script will ask for the full path to a cftisio tar ball, and then provide a choice a predefined targets corresponding to different combinations of C++ compilers and options. Each of those targets is defined in a configuration file located in Healpix_2.15a/src/cxx/config/ The user can therefore add new targets or edit existing ones, and the ./configure script will update its menu accordingly. If a fairly recent version (3.2 or higher) of gcc and g++ is installed on the system, the target "generic_gcc" should always work. The environment variable HEALPIX_TARGET will be set to the value of the chosen target.
If the HEALPIX configuration file is sourced as described in § 3.1.1, the full path to the C++ executables will be added to the environment PATH variable.

Fortran 90 configuration

When you run ./configure on a supported system you will be prompted to enter compiler optimisation flags. We have not attempted to provide the best optimisation flags for all operating systems. The configure script will have a guess at optimisation options for some systems, but it is up to the user to figure out an optimal set1. From our experience, we have not found significant accumulation of numerical error even when using the most aggressive optimisation level available.
If the HEALPIX configuration file is sourced as described in § 3.1.1, the full path to the F90 executables will be added to the environment PATH variable.

IDL configuration

You will be asked for the external applications you want to use to visualize the Postscript and PNG files created by IDL.
If the HEALPix configuration file is sourced as described in § 3.1.1, the aliases hidl and hidle are also defined to give you access to HEALPIX routines from IDL.

Compilation and installation

command will compile one or several of the C, C++ and F90 packages depending on what was configured with the ./configure script. Specific packages can be compiled with the respective commands

   make c-all
   make cpp-all
   make f90-all.

To perform several compilation jobs simultaneously, the command make -j [jobs] can be used.

Please neglect any possible warnings at compile time. If you run into trouble please refer to the section Troubleshooting and further information.

After running make, the user must re-login to ensure that the new profiles built by the installation procedure are correctly sourced. Only then will the user have full access to the specific HEALPix environment variables etc.

Testing the installation

All installed libraries and executables can be tested with

   make test

while specific tests of the C, C++ and Fortran products can be performed with, respectively

   make c-test
   make cpp-test
   make f90-test
For the latter, Table 2 lists the codes tested with the parameter files used, as well as the data files produced and the respective reference files.

Table 2: Data files and images produced by the Fortran codes during the tests, and the respective reference files to which they can be compared. All the files listed are located or produced in the Healpix_2.15a/test directory. The GIF images of full sky maps were produced using map2gif. NA: No image available, because the data set is not a sky map
code & parameter file output data reference data output image reference image
synfast syn.par test_map.fits map.fits test_map.gif map.gif
  test_alm.fits alm.fits NA NA
smoothing smo.par test_sm.fits map_sm.fits test_sm.gif map_sm.gif
ud_grade udg.par test_LOres.fits map_LOres.fits test_LOres.gif map_LOres.gif
hotspot hot.par test_ext.fits map_ext.fits test_ext.gif map_ext.gif
  test_max.asc max.asc NA NA
  test_min.asc min.asc NA NA
anafast ana.par test_cl.fits cl_out.fits NA NA
alteralm alt.par test_almdec.fits almdec.fits NA NA
median_filter med.par test_mf.fits map_mf.fits test_mf.gif map_mf.gif
sky_ng_sim ngfs.par test_ngfs.fits map_ngfs.fits test_ngfs.gif map_ngfs.gif


* the input power spectrum (in Healpix_2.15a/test/cl.fits) used to generate the Fortran90 test maps is currently the WMAP 1yr best fit, in $(\mu$K)2, and is therefore different from the one included in releases 1.* (that can still be found in cl_old.fits). See for details on WMAP and its data products.
* the file Healpix_2.15a/test/wmap_lcdm_sz_lens_wmap5_cl_v3.fits was added for convenience, even though it is currently *NOT* used for any of the simulated test maps.

It has been adapted to run with HEALPix from WMAP 5yr best fit model for $\Lambda$-CDM + SZ + lensing with B mode = 0, in $(\mu$K)2 (input file: For the value of the cosmological parameters, see

In order to test the new HEALPix profile set-up one can then attempt to run any C++ or F90 facility from any directory on your system. Similarly, IDL should be tested by invoking hidl or hidlde.

Cleaning up

Three levels of cleaning are available:
  make clean
will remove the intermediate files created during compilation, such as object files, (Fortran) modules files, ... found in the source or build directories;
  make tidy
same as above, and will also remove the HEALPix executables, libraries and module and/or include files;
  make distclean
will return the HEALPix directory to its original 'distribution' state by discarding the same files as above, as well as the executable and library directories and the top level Makefile.

Upgrading from 2.0 to 2.1

The internal structure of release 2.1 is quite different from release 2.0 and to avoid confusion during the compilation we highly recommend to put the new release in a different directory, rather than putting the new package on top of the old one. If you actually change the name of the 'active' HEALPix directory care must be taken that all references to the old directory are removed from your system profile before adding the new ones (see Note on Re-installation).

A Note on Re-installation

As a result of the line added to your shell profile which explicitly sources the HEALPix profile, care must be taken if the package is reinstalled in a different directory. If such reinstallation is desired, the included line must be removed from your system profile, allowing the corrected version to be added.

Troubleshooting and further information

This section contains a list of difficulties which we have dealt with. It is by no means exhaustive. A troubleshooting forum has been established at, where we list current questions and solutions to known problems (for a given release). A bug tracker is also available on SourceForge at this address. If the problem you encounter is not addressed in those forums nor below, please contact healpix at

Installation under Microsoft Windows

The installation and usage of HEALPix require many standard Unix/Linux tools (such as sh, make, awk, grep, sed, ls, wc, cat, more, nm, ar) as well as C, C++ and Fortran compilers. To install it under Windows, you will need to
* Install Cygwin on your machine (see In addition to the default packages, you need at least the binutils, coreutils, util-linux, bash, gawk, grep, make and sed packages, as well as gcc and gcc-g++ packages, all available at
* Install the latest gfortran binaries for Cygwin from$\tilde{}$coudert/gfortran/, following the instructions at
* Unpack the HEALPix software package
* Run configure as you would on other platforms
* The C++ code can be compiled using HEALPIX_TARGET=generic_gcc

Problems with CFITSIO

Compilation of CFITSIO Fortran wrappers

The most common problem with the Fortran HEALPix compilation will produce messages like:
  ld: Undefined symbols:
  fitstools.f90: undefined reference to `ftdkey_'
  fitstools.f90: undefined reference to `ftbnfm_'
  fitstools.f90: undefined reference to `ftclos_'
 Undefined symbols:
  "_ftghbn_", referenced from:
      ___fitstools_MOD_read_fits_cut4.clone.2 in libhealpix.a(fitstools.o)
      ___fitstools_MOD_getsize_fits.clone.1 in libhealpix.a(fitstools.o)
      ___fitstools_MOD_getsize_fits in libhealpix.a(fitstools.o)
 ld: symbol(s) not found
 collect2: ld returned 1 exit status
and occurs when the CFITSIO installation script could not find a valid fortran compiler.
To solve this problem
  1. Go into the CFITSIO directory.
    Assuming that ifort is available on your system (it can be replaced below by gfortran, g95, f77, f2c, $\ldots$) type:
         ./configure FC=ifort     
         make install      (optional).
  2. Then go back into the HEALPix directory and do
         ./configure      (making sure that you are using the newly created libcfitsio.a library)
         make test     
See also the note below on 64 bit architectures.

CFITSIO problems on systems with 64 bit architecture

  1. Linux, Mac OS X

    If the HEALPix codes are compiled in 64 bits, and the GNU C Compiler (gcc) is used to compiled CFITSIO, then issue the following commands in the CFITSIO directory:

      ./configure FC='gcc -m64'

    You can then force compilation to the same binary format by entering -m64 when asked for the optimisation options in the HEALPix configure script.

  2. IRIX64

    On a 64-bit architecture such as IRIX64, CFITSIO will have to be compiled in the same binary format as the HEALPix codes. This can be achieved by typing the following on the command line in the CFITSIO directory:

      rm config.cache    
      setenv CC 'cc -n32'

    Alternatively you can replace the -n32 with -64. You can then force compilation to the same binary format by entering either -n32 or -64 when asked for the optimisation options in the HEALPix configure script.

CFITSIO linking problems

A particular problem encountered with the CFITSIO Version 2.0 release relates to the inclusion of various libraries within the system release for a given machine. This led to some modifications to the Makefile to include the specific library links -lm -lnsl -lsocket on SunOS, but only -lm for IRIX64. If your OS is not completely supported by the distribution, you may find this as one source of errors. The CFITSIO developers recommend compilation of the testprog routine. Inspection of the libraries linked after executing the make testprog statement will reveal those you need to include in the Makefile.

CFTISIO and Debian/Linux

Some problems have been reported on Debian/Linux systems during the linking to the CFITSIO library shipped with Linux. If these problems occur, try to recompile the CFITSIO library from scratch before linking to HEALPix .

diff shows that the test files are different from the supplied files

This by itself is no cause for concern. When comparing using a diff on the test files will most likely report a difference even when the installation has been successful. This may be due to the fact that different installations have different floating point representations. Also, the FITS files carry date information.

MIPSPro Compilers on SGI machines

Regrettably, the MIPSpro Compiler Version 7.20 has a compiler bug which cause run-time memory faults. We have not found any problems with Version

Try unlimit

If you have unforeseen problems at runtime, try unlimit (under csh or tcsh) or ulimit (under sh or bash), in order to increase the heap and stack memory size. It sometimes helps.

hidl usage

We have found that in very rare cases the alias hidl is not recognised by the user's system. Usually, this is related to the local system's IDL script. A quick-fix is achieved by setting the environment variable IDL_STARTUP to be equal to the HEALPix startup file HEALPix_startup including the directory path to the file. This enables the user to access the HEALPix IDL procedures simply by invoking IDL. For example, in the typical installation documented above for a user running the tcsh shell, the command
setenv IDL_STARTUP /disk1/user1/HEALPix_2.15a/src/idl/HEALPix_startup
should be issued (or added to the user's shell profile).

If the user already has an IDL startup file, then this should be merged with HEALPix_startup. This temporary solution does mean that the HEALPix IDL procedures are available in the IDL_PATH at all times, which may lead to conflicts with user-defined procedures. The hidl invocation was intended to circumvent these issues, allowing HEALPix IDL procedures to be available only when desired.

A proper fix requires the user to ask the local system administrator to adjust the local IDL script.

Mac OS X, X11 and IDL cursor

If the IDL cursor does not work correctly on X11 windows under Mac OS X, and the 2nd and 3rd button clicks are ineffective, type
* under Tiger (10.4.*):
defaults write wm_click_through -bool true
* under Leopard (10.5.*) and Snow Leopard (10.6.*):
defaults write org.x.x11 wm_click_through -bool true
at your X11 prompt and restart X11. (See also mollcusor documentation in ''IDL Facilities'').

Using GDL instead of IDL

GNU Data Language (GDL), is a free clone of IDL 6.0 (for more information see Both the source code and precompiled executables for various platforms are available.

When used to run IDL-Healpix routines, GDL 0.9rc3 or more gives satisfactory results2. The calculations agree with those done under IDL, with comparable computation times, but a few features are missing in the production of Postscript, GIF and PNG files, as described below.

Specific requirements

HEALPix requires a few IDL routines that are not yet part of GDL. Among those are

Most of these routines can be downloaded from However, those marked with a $^\dagger$ above can only be found in IDL packages ($IDL_DIR/lib/*.pro). They are required for online documentation of the HEALPix routines (ie /HELP keyword available on most routines).

Please note that GDL must be linked with ImageMagick during installation to produce PNG output files.

Impact of GDL limitations on HEALPix

* Ximview won't work under GDL 0.9rc3
* Because of problems with GDL's point_lun routine, the reading of FITS files with most of Astronomy User's Library routines won't be possible.
* Currently, the cartview, gnomview, mollview and orthview routines won't produce Postscript nor GIF outputs when run under GDL (but PNG files are OK, see above).
* In those same routines, the TRANSPARENT keyword will be ignored in the production of PNG files under GDL. For the same reasons, hpx2gs won't mark missing pixels as transparent in the output PNG file.
* The healpix_doc routine won't work under GDL.

Appendix I: Recent Changes and New Features

Bug corrections and Improvements in Versions 2.15 and 2.15a

Fortran 90

* remove_dipole: removed confusing warning messages about unused masks and weights.


* cartview, gnomview, mollview, orthview:
* export of projected map into a FITS file (FITS keyword), or an IDL array (MAP_OUT option) now available with all viewing routines,
* added CHARTHICK support; accept array of OUTLINE structures (if they have the same fields),
* correction of a bug (in loaddata_healpix) that was affecting the behavior of these viewing routines after consecutive calls with very partial cut-sky and then full-sky data sets [2.15a];
* remove_dipole now outputs the monopole and dipole covariance matrix;
* write_fits_map, write_tqu, write_fits_sb: BAD_DATA keyword added to FITS header;
* update of astron library routines (24-May-2010) for improved WCS support.

Bug corrections and Improvements in Version 2.14a


* correction of a numerical bug in alm2map_der routine that was affecting the accuracy of the Stokes parameter derivatives $\partial X/\partial\theta$, $\partial^2 X/(\partial\theta\partial\phi\sin\theta)$, $\partial^2 X/\partial \theta^2$, for X=Q,U produced by synfast (bug detected by Wen Zhao, Cardiff University). See ''Fortran Facilities'' Appendix for details.


* cartview, gnomview, mollview, orthview:
* OUTLINE=, GRATICULE=, IGRATICULE= work again with virtual windows (WINDOW<0)
* YPOS= and RETAIN= keywords active again
* PS= keyword fixed
* orthview: fixed problems with /SHADE keyword, which now outputs 8-byte (instead of 16-byte) PNG files
* ianafast, ismoothing: fixed problem with processing of polarized maps stored in memory.
* ud_grade: improved handling of flagged pixels on Double Precision input maps
* remove_dipole: COORD_IN= and COORD_OUT= now accept lower case values; /SILENT keyword added.


* 64 bit java-HEALPix , supports Nside up to = 229 = 536870912
* now fully implemented
* much faster pixel queries (eg query_disc)
* jhealpixSmall.jar: new smaller jar containing only main classes to be used into other applications or from the web (applets, $\ldots$)
* Java3d: upgrade/degrade fixed; color bar update fixed
* many others minor issues and javadocs fixed

Bug corrections and Improvements in Version 2.13a


* the configure script and its subroutines are now POSIX compliant (in particular, they should now run smoothly under Ubuntu Linux)


* new get_healpix_data_dir, get_healpix_main_dir, get_healpix_test_dir functions returning full path to HEALPix directories


* new healpix_doc routine to browse HTML and PDF documentations
* cartview, gnomview, mollview, orthview:
* introduction of the TRUECOLORS= keyword to generate color image from 3 channel map
* extended capability of the TRANSPARENT= keyword
* addition of MAP_OUT= to gnomview
* improved compatibility with GDL (free IDL clone). See §6.8 for current GDL limitations.
* update of the IDL-astron library routines, which now require IDL 6.1 or more
* fits2alm: new LMAX= and LMIN= keywords
* fits2cl: new LLFACTOR= keyword
* init_healpix defines substructure with complete path to HEALPix subdirectories (test, data, bin)
* slightly faster write_fits_cut4 and write_fits_sb routines.
* ianafast, ismoothing: solved problem with W8DIR= keyword.

Bug corrections and Improvements in Versions 2.12 and 2.12a


* the Makefiles are can now handle parallel compilation (ie make -j or make -jobs).


* a warning (instead of an error) is issued in case of version mismatch between CFITSIO header and run time library


* to avoid confusion with a widespread library, the Healpix specific GIF routines library is now named libhpxgif.a instead of libgif.a. However, to avoid disrupting existing user-developed Makefiles, the library will remain available under both names for the time being.
* solved problem with gfortran and g95 occuring over a line longer than 132 characters [2.12a]


* ianafast, ismoothing, isynfast: the TMPDIR keyword now works properly, and $IDL_TMPDIR is used as the default temporary directory.
* ud_grade: correctly flags bad output pixels with bad_data value when upgrading maps; now works for Nside > 8192 on cut sky data
* cartview, gnomview, mollview, orthview: using a virtual window (ie, WINDOW<0) now allows faster generation of GIF and PNG files (especially useful over remote connections); added RETAIN= keyword; deals correctly with user provided MIN and MAX keywords in /LOG mode
* orthview: addition of /SHADED keyword for 3D rendering
* ximview: version 0.6.2, fixed bug in pixel coordinates [2.12a]


* getNSide method in HealpixIndex class changed to calculateNSide.
* Area methods static - upgrade/degrade methods added.

Appendix II: Older changes

Bug corrections and Improvements in Version 2.11c


* corrected typos, correctly detects recent gfortran;
* configure: added explanatory header


* edited src/C/subs/Makefile to fix potential problem with test_chealpix2 code compilation


* in src/cxx/alice/planck.make, replaced confusing test with test_alice


* sky_ng_sim_bin code now working
* use pointers in map2alm_iterative routine in order to fix unexplained crashes
* edited create_alm routine to work around a bug in with some versions of PGF90
* write_minimal_header corrected typo in FITS header for derivative maps


* fixed bug in selectread
* introduced src/idl/misc/ wrapper to astrolib
* removed invocation to !debug in 11 FITS related routines

Bug corrections and Improvements in Version 2.11


* installation:
* Fixed IDL installation problem under (ba)sh
* Check consistency of cfitsio library with F90 routines
* introduced command line options for ./configure
* fixed infinite loop in main Makefile's tidy and distclean options
* documentation:
* ``IDL routines'': rightfully says that IDL6.0 or more recent is required


* Makefile no longer assumes that current directory ('.') is in PATH


* fixed error affecting equatorial pixels in maps generated by alm2map*


* fixed problem with TTYPE* when writing FITS header (was also affecting IDL's isynfast)
* fixed crash causing bug in map2alm_iterative subroutine (was affecting anafast, sky_ng_sims and smoothing facilities)
* fixed un-initialized variables in compute_statistics subroutine
* fixed parameters parsing problem in interactive mode of synfast, anafast, ...


* issues warning when non-integer pixel indexes are fed to nest2ring, ring2nest, pix2ang_*, pix2vec_*, ...
* more stable and elegant behaviour of isynfast and ianafast
* cartview, gnomview, mollview, orthview:
* deal properly with MIN and MAX in ASINH mode
* polarization norm map can be offset (POLARIZATION=1 mode)
* original color table and plot settings are restored when leaving these routines
* ximview:
* fixed problem with cut-sky FITS files
* color scale bar added to PNG output
* cosmetic editions to remove_dipole



Changes and New Features in Version 2.10


* single configure script and Makefile for C, C++, Fortran and IDL codes and libraries


* shared chealpix library available


* new alice visualization facility for polarized maps
* new class Healpix_Base2 supporting Nside up to 229
* minor bug fixes


* The free Fortran90/95 compilers supported include:
* Intel Fortran Compiler for linux based computers (version 8.1, 9.* or 10.*)
* GNU Fortran 95 compiler (gfortran) included in GNU Compiler Collection GCC version 4.0.0 and up and available for Linux, Mac OSX, Windows, Sun ... platforms
GFortran binaries for all platforms can also be downloaded from
Please note that only the most recent versions of gfortran (Aug 2005 and later) compile HEALPix correctly, and v4.2.1 has given satisfying results so far, including native OpenMP support.
* g95 compiler available for Linux, Mac OSX, Windows, Sun and HP platforms
* New facilities
* The anafast facility can now compute the cross-correlations of two different maps.
* The sky_ng_sim facility (Rocha et al, 2005), to produce non-Gaussian CMB temperature maps, has been added.
* New routines:
* alm2map_spin: synthesis of maps of arbitrary spin
* healpix_modules: meta-module
* map2alm_iterative: iterative analysis of map
* map2alm_spin: analysis of maps of arbitrary spin
* write_minimal_header: routine to write minimal FITS header
* parse_check_unused: prints out parameters present in parameter file but not used by the code.
* Improved routines:
* query_strip: the inclusive option now returns all (and only) the pixels overlapping, even partially, with the strip
* query_disc: when the disc center is on one of the poles, only the pixels overlapping with the disc are now returned.
* remove_dipole: can now deal with non-uniform pixel weights.
* parse_init: silent mode
* parse_string: can expand environment variables (${XXX}) and leading ~$\!$/


* New features
* Using 64 bit integers available since version 5.2 of IDL the maximum resolution parameter Nside supported has increased from 213=8192 to 229=536870912, corresponding to $3.46\ 10^{18}$ pixels on the sphere.
* FITS files larger than 2GB can now be read/written on systems supporting 64 bit addressing.

* New routines include
* ximview: visualisation routine developed by J. P. Leahy intended for quick-look inspection of HEALPix images (as well as ordinary 2-D images) at the level of individual pixels. Features include panning, zooming, blinking, image statistics and peak finding.
* hpx2gs: turns a healpix data set into a Google Earth/Google Sky-compatible image
* ianafast: interface to (F90) anafast and (C++) anafast_cxx facilities
* isynfast: interface to F90 synfast facility
* ismoothing: interface to F90 smoothing facility
* bin_llcl: C(l) binning
* bl2fits: writes B(l) or W(l) window into FITS file
* neighbours_nest, neighbours_ring: find immediate neighbours of a given pixel
* query_strip: find pixels lying within a colatitude strip
* Routines with extended/improved user interface or new functionalities include
* mollview, gnomview, cartview, orthview:
* ONLINE keyword is now redundant,
* introduction of GLSIZE and IGLSIZE to control automatic labeling of graticules,
* addition of SILENT and EXECUTE keywords,
* addition of ASINH keyword to allow better visualisation of highly contrasted maps.
* under certain circumstances, can process high resolution cut sky data sets without creating full sky dummy maps,
* accept gzip compressed FITS files,
* accept polarized cut sky maps,
* accept multi-dimensional online arrays,
* more robust OUTLINE option.

* median_filter: bugs correction
* ud_grade: more robust user interface
* change_polcconv: new /FORCE keyword
* remove_dipole: more accurate
* query_disc: when the disc center is on one of the poles, only the pixels overlapping with the disc are now returned.
* Miscellaneous
* mollcursor, gnomcursor...: an X11 patch is given so that these routines work under Mac OS X 10.4 and 10.5.


* Almost all query pixels related methods ported to Java have been added like:
* query_triangle, query_polygon, etc,
* a tool class for operating on healpix map.

* OO Data model added:
* HealpixMap data model interface introduced,
* AbstractHealpixMap interface to deal with 3d viewer visualization.

* Java graphical user interface included to plot healpix maps object into a 3d sphere using java3d api:
* 3 button Mouse operating 3d pixelised sphere: zoom, rotation and translation,
* tool tip display value and angular position of the pixel selected,
* color bar, grid, axes,
* transparencies selector,
* nside number selector,
* face number selector.

* Bugs fixed like:
* crosses the 0/360 line give correct query triangle solution,
* library uses one constants class to define used constants,
* SpatialVector extends the vector class from vecmath,
* Change all float to double,
* Many other minor bug fixed.

Changes and New Features in Version 2.00

* Free / Open source software license
* New web page:
* HTML and PDF documentations are available in [HEALPix]/doc/html/main.htm and [HEALPix]/doc/pdf/
* C++ implementation of almost all codes and routines
* Fortran90:
* 2 to 3 times faster Spherical Harmonics tools (ie, synfast, anafast, smoothing, plmgen)
* parallelization for distributed memory architectures
* More free Fortran90/95 compilers supported:
* Intel Fortran Compiler for linux based computers (version 8.1 or 9.0)
* GNU Fortran 95 compiler (gfortran) included in GNU Compiler Collection GCC version 4.0.0 and up and available for Linux, Mac OSX, Windows, Sun ... platforms
Please note that only the most recent CVS versions of gfortran (Aug 2005 and later) compile HEALPix correctly!
* g95 compiler available for Linux, Mac OSX, Windows, Sun and HP platforms
* C++ and F90 codes
* (almost) identical user interface
* parallelization for shared memory architectures
* new facilities: median filtering of HEALPix map and alteration/rotation of Spherical Harmonics coefficients
* single and double precision I/O
* speed optimization of FITS I/O
* more platforms/compilers supported (including Mac OS X, 32/64bit architecture, etc.)
* new, longer period, random number generator
* linkage to FFTW has been discontinued
* precomputed ring weights used for quadrature of the Spherical Harmonics are now available for all resolution parameters $N_{\rm side} \le 8192$
* Java implementation of pixel tools
* IDL:
* median filtering facility
* speed optimization of FITS I/O
* more options in file reading and visualisation routines

Changes and New Features in Version 1.20

* An extensive HTML documentation is included in the package (in [HEALPix]/doc/html/main.htm). It is also available at the web page, as well as the PostScript documention.
* The convention used for the normalisation of the polarization power spectra has been changed to match that of CMBFAST. This subject and its implications are described in details in the HEALPix Primer
* The pixel window functions are now provided for both temperature and polarization. Recalculation of the temperature window for Nside > 128 induce a slight change of these functions (see the ``HEALPix Primer'' for details).
* Because of its obsolete F66 features that limited its portability with current f90/f95 compilers, the FFTPACK module used in version 1.10 is no longer in use. HEALPix 1.2 can either use a different self contained FFT module shipped with the package, or use the freely available FFTW library (see section 2). The script file asks which FFT the user wants to use. If selected, FFTW must be correctly installed (in double precision) before installing Healpix.
* It is now possible to use an OpenMP parallelisation of the Spherical Harmonics Transforms (see § 2).
* The compilers now supported under Linux systems are
* Intel Fortran Compiler, available for free (tested for version 6.01 and 7.0)
* Lahey/Fujitsu Compiler, both free trial and commercial versions
* NAGWare f95, commercial
* Portland Group Compiler, commercial
* Fujitsu Compiler, commercial
* The Mac Operating System Darwin is now supported. To this date (Jan 2003) it has only been tested with NAGWare f95
* A small subset of routines for the pixel to sky coordinate conversion is now available in C (see the documentation ''C Subroutines Overview'').
* New Fortran subroutines have been added or upgraded (see the documentation ''Fortran90 Subroutines Overview'') and most of the Fortran facilities have been upgraded (see the documentation ''Fortran90 Facilities User Guidelines'')
* several Fortran routines have been renamed and merged.
* The module wrap_fits has been renamed head_fits to reflect its extended capabilities,
* some routines no longer in use have been moved to obsolete module
* New IDL routines have been added, and several routines have been renamed or merged. See the documentation ''IDL Facilities Overview''
* The configure script automatically creates a (system specific) profile defining useful environment variables and aliases. In particular, the system variable HEALPIX must be correctly defined (as the full path to the HEALPix directory) prior to running the pipeline.
* All legacy f77 or f66 codes have been removed or replaced in order to improve the portability
* The script file has been improved to, among other things, get rid of problems appearing under SunOS

Changes and New Features in Version 1.10

* Only native make is required for building the facilities, although we do still recommend GNU make.
* The configure script automatically creates a (system specific) profile defining useful environment variables and aliases
* An IDL startup file is provided to ease use of IDL tools. Users should invoke IDL using the command hidl to take advantage of these features
* Various bug fixes and code modifications have been completed to improve compatibility and usability of software with NAG F90 and F95 compilers, and the COMPAQ (DEC) Alpha compiler
* New Fortran subroutines and functions include:
ang2vec, vec2ang, npix2nside, nside2npix
* New IDL routines include:,,,,,,,,,
* Those routines from The IDL Astronomy User's Library and the COBE (IDL) Analysis Software library required for use by the HEALPix IDL facilities are bundled with the distribution

About this document ...

HEALPix Facility Installation Guidelines

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